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The «display» macro lets you display the full contents of a passage inside another passage.


Long form:

<<display expression>>

Shorthand form (see below):

<<string [value …]>>

Motivating example

Suppose you have a block of text or code which appears identically in multiple passages. It can be a pain to have to keep track of each instance in which it was used, especially when fixing spelling or link names. <display» provides you with an elegant means of reusing this text: simply place it in another passage, and then use «display» in each of the places it is used.

Consider this source code, which paraphrases one of the first scenes of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy:

:: The world is ending
The world is about to end -- something about construction of a bypass? -- and
you only have time to buy one thing at the pub.
* [[Buy another beer]]
* [[Buy a sandwich]]

:: Buy another beer
Ford had said something about muscle relaxant.
You decide to take him at his word.

<<display 'Vogons begin'>>

:: Buy a sandwich
For some odd reason you've been craving a cheese sandwich all day, and it looks
like you won't have a chance to have one anytime soon.

<<display 'Vogons begin'>>

:: Vogons begin
You hear a great rumbling from outside, and rush outside to see what's going on...
<<set $vogons to true>>

In both of those passages, the entire text of the passage “Vogons begin” will be displayed after the text. Since its text contains the macro «set $vogons to true», then it will indeed be set in both of those passages.

A note about tags

What the «display» macro actually does is copy the text from the given passage into the current passage. It doesn't actually display the passage in its own right. What this means is that, if a passage has tag-based CSS styling specific to it, then that styling will not be applied to the current passage!

Using a variable to display a passage

The «display» macro treats its argument as a code expression. This means that you can put a passage name in a variable and then display it:

With a rush of wind, you arrive in the <<print $destination>>!
<<display $destination>>

If, say, $destination contained the string “Cellar”, and a Cellar passage existed, it would print “With a rush of wind, you arrive in the Cellar!” and display the Cellar passage.

Shorthand form

The «display» macro is special among Twine macros because it has a shorthand form. Instead of writing «display “passage”», you can simply write «passage», as if it was another macro.

However, to avoid conflicts with other aspects of Twine syntax, you can only use the shorthand to display passages whose names adhere to these rules:

  • The passage name must not contain spaces.
  • The passage name must not conflict with the name of an actual macro (so, you can't display a passage titled “print”).

This shorthand form allows you to write Twine stories in a “template” style:

:: Battle start
With a resounding cry of "<<battlecry>>", your <<minions>> rush into battle!

:: battlecry [nobr]
<<if $morale > 2>>
Victory is ours!
Help us!

:: minions [nobr]
<<if $species is "globbo">>
<<else if $species is "varavar">>

As you can see, the “battlecry” and “minions” passages can be displayed in place of those «if» statements throughout the story, with little hindrance to the readability of the passage text.

Avoid the <<display>> loop

It is possible to lock up a reader's Web browser by using the «display» macro improperly, like this:

:: Oops
<<display "Oops">>

When displayed, the passage will keep attempting to display itself over and over until the reader force quits his Web browser. This doesn't do permanent damage, but it will not endear yourself to your reader.

display.1387174319.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/10/09 20:37 (external edit)