It turned out my update to SugarCube 2.20.0 didn't take, and I was seeing the previous output file from the older SugarCube 2 version when I thought I had the updated one. Once I fixed that problem, I got the expected message about the degraded Safari experience instead of the error.
The story started out in Sugarcane long ago, which is why I'm still using SugarCube 1. I haven't noticed a difference between 1 and 2 except in style (I'm used to 1), and now this issue. I don't really expect problems upgrading because the scripting for this story is very basic, but I haven't thoroughly tested the SugarCube 2 version or come up with the CSS to make it look like 1 yet.